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The Impact of AI and Automation on the Right to Work: Challenges and Policy Solutions


This essay explores the multifaceted impact of artificial intelligence (AI) and automation on the right to work. It delves into the challenges posed by job displacement, the necessity for retraining programs, and the implementation of policies safeguarding workers' rights in the era of automation. Drawing on academic sources, it analyzes the rise of AI, the potential consequences of job displacement, and ethical considerations. The essay advocates for comprehensive policy solutions to ensure a fair and inclusive transition for the global workforce.


The rapid advancement of artificial intelligence (AI) and automation technologies has sparked both excitement and concern, especially when it comes to their impact on the job market and the fundamental right to work. As we witness the transformative power of these technologies, it becomes crucial to explore the potential challenges of job displacement, the need for retraining, and the implementation of policies that can safeguard workers' rights in this evolving landscape.

One of the core implications that the advancement of AI and automation technologies has caused is the fact that, gradually, technological advancements tend to replace humans in various aspects of humans’ lives and consequently neutralize the human itself. For this reason, it is of utmost importance for the advancement of  AI and automation technologies to be regulated in a way that will help people work and not eliminate them from work. It is, also, of utmost significance for people to show quick reflexes and adjust in the contemporary work conditions. This is the main reason why retraining programs are important.

The Rise of AI and Automation 

AI and automation have undoubtedly brought about unprecedented efficiency and innovation across various industries. From self-driving cars to automated customer service, these technologies have the potential to revolutionize the way we work. It is without question that the recent technological advancements, especially AI and machine learning, have created completely new job opportunities, affecting the way businesses, employers and employees behave and function (Frey & Osborne, 2017).

However, the flip side of this coin raises concerns about the displacement of traditional jobs as machines become more proficient in tasks that were once exclusive to human workers. In the era of AI and Automation the challenges of job displacement are multifaceted and have an impact on various sectors of the workforce (Hervieux & Wheatley, 2022).

Job Displacement 

As AI and automation technologies continue to evolve, certain job roles may become obsolete or significantly transformed. Some of the most important challenges that can lead to job displacement are the following:

Initially, jobs that involve routine and repetitive tasks are particularly vulnerable to automation. Tasks such as data entry, simple assembly line work, and basic customer service roles can be easily automated, leading to potential job displacement for workers in these fields (Frey & Osborne, 2017). 

In addition, jobs that require low-level skills and manual labor are at risk. Industries such as manufacturing, agriculture, and certain service sectors may see significant job displacement as AI and automation technologies become more proficient in performing physical tasks (Frey & Osborne, 2017). 

Thirdly, certain industries, such as transportation and logistics, may face substantial job displacement due to the development of self-driving vehicles and automated delivery systems. Similarly, the advent of robotic process automation (RPA) may impact jobs in administrative and clerical roles (Malatji, 2023). 

Furthermore, automation can make certain tasks more cost-effective, potentially leading to increased offshoring of jobs. This not only displaces local workers but also raises concerns about the ethical and social implications of globalization and labor practices. 

Finally, small businesses, which often operate with limited resources, may find it challenging to adopt and integrate automation technologies. This could lead to a competitive disadvantage, potentially resulting in job losses or business closures (Malatji, 2023).

Retraining Needs

These challenges, as described above, are particularly susceptible to automation, leading to concerns about unemployment in specific sectors. To address this challenge, a proactive approach is required to retrain the workforce for the jobs of the future.

Retraining programs play a pivotal role in ensuring that individuals are equipped with the skills needed in the evolving job market. Governments, educational institutions, and businesses must collaborate to establish comprehensive training initiatives that focus on the development of skills that complement, rather than compete with, AI and automation. These programs are to be designed to equip workers with the skills and knowledge needed for emerging roles in the evolving job market (Ayandibu, et al., 2021). Here's how retraining programs can address the aforementioned concerns:

First of all, retraining programs can provide workers with the opportunity to acquire new skills that align with emerging job demands. By focusing on developing expertise in areas where human capabilities complement AI and automation, workers can transition to roles that are less susceptible to displacement.

Secondly, as technology advances, there is often a mismatch between the skills workers possess and the skills required in the job market. Retraining programs can bridge this gap by offering targeted training in areas where there is high demand, ensuring that workers are well-prepared for the evolving workforce (Ayandibu, et al., 2021).

Moreover, retraining programs not only provide immediate solutions but also instill a culture of adaptability and lifelong learning. By encouraging continuous skill development, workers become more resilient to technological changes, reducing the risk of job displacement over time.

Additionally, while technical skills are crucial, retraining programs should also emphasize the development of soft skills and emotional intelligence. These human-centric attributes are less likely to be automated and become increasingly valuable in roles that involve collaboration, creativity, and empathy.

Finally, different industries face unique challenges in the era of automation. Retraining programs can be tailored to address the specific needs of each industry, ensuring that workers are equipped with the skills relevant to the demands of their particular sector (Milanez, 2023).

There are also several difficulties that especially the SMEs will confront and hence there must be support by other factors. For example, as we have mentioned above, SMEs may lack the resources to implement extensive retraining initiatives independently. Government-sponsored or industry-led retraining programs can provide support to smaller businesses, helping them adapt to automation and retain their workforce. There are more possibilities for retraining programs to be successful if they involve collaboration between the government, industry stakeholders, and educational institutions. By working together, these entities can ensure that retraining initiatives align with industry needs and that the workforce is adequately prepared for the jobs of the future (Milanez, 2023).

However, this may not be enough. Thus, the effectiveness of retraining programs should be continuously monitored and evaluated. Regular assessments can help identify areas for improvement, ensuring that the programs remain responsive to the dynamic nature of the job market and technological advancements.

Policies Safeguarding Workers' Rights

The right to work is a fundamental human right, and as the nature of work undergoes transformation, it is crucial to enact policies that protect workers from the potential negative impacts of AI and automation. One key policy consideration is the establishment of a social safety net that includes unemployment benefits, job placement services, and educational support for displaced workers (Brynjolfsson & McAfee, 2014).

Moreover, the implementation of fair labor practices, including reasonable working hours, competitive wages, and safe working conditions, remains essential. As AI takes on routine tasks, the human workforce can shift focus towards creative, strategic, and emotionally intelligent roles. Policies that encourage this transition and support workers in acquiring the necessary skills for these roles are paramount (Rébé, 2021).

More specifically, several significant policies that can provide worker with effective solutions are the following:

1. The establishment of the Universal Basic Income (UBI). UBI can offer a safety net, ensuring that individuals have a minimum level of income to cover their essential needs, even if traditional jobs are disrupted by automation. This policy recognizes the changing nature of work and helps prevent extreme economic disparities.

2. Investment in Lifelong Learning and Upskilling to promote continuous learning and upskilling opportunities for the workforce. Governments, in collaboration with businesses and educational institutions, should invest in programs that enable workers to acquire new skills throughout their careers. This policy ensures that the workforce remains adaptable, reducing the risk of job displacement and enhancing overall employability (Brynjolfsson & McAfee, 2014).

3. Worker Representation in Technology Decision-making to include workers to the implementation of AI and automation technologies. Ensuring that workers have a voice in technological decisions that affect their jobs helps prevent exploitation and fosters a collaborative approach to workplace automation. This policy may involve creating worker councils or advisory boards that actively participate in discussions about technology adoption and its impact on the workforce.

Finally, it is essential to establish and enforce ethical standards for the development and deployment of AI technologies. Implementing clear ethical guidelines ensures that AI systems are designed and used responsibly, without perpetuating biases or leading to discriminatory outcomes. Accountability mechanisms can be put in place to address issues related to AI decision-making, promoting fairness and transparency in the workplace (Rébé, 2021).

Ethical AI Practices and Social Impact 

Ensuring the right to work also requires a commitment to ethical AI practices. Bias in AI algorithms can inadvertently perpetuate existing inequalities in the workforce, leading to discrimination (Broussard, 2019). Therefore, it is crucial to develop and enforce standards that promote fairness, transparency, and accountability in AI systems (Frischmann & Selinger, 2018).

Governments and organizations must invest in research and development to identify and mitigate bias in AI, ensuring that these technologies promote inclusivity rather than exacerbate societal divides. Establishing ethical guidelines for the deployment of AI in the workplace is essential for preserving the right to work without discrimination (Frischmann & Selinger, 2018).

It is true that the social and ethical impact of AI is debated. Theorists who are in favor of AI and automation technologies support that it can make life simpler, more secure, and more effective. On the other hand, theorists who are against it support that it increases racism, it puts at stake privacy rights, worsens unemployment etc. (Broussard, 2019).  In addition, civil society supports the argument of more accountability in the manner AI is used -as a way to address the ethical, legal and social problems caused.

To strengthen our analysis, it is important to make a reference of a theory that can help us assess profoundly the ethical and social impact of AI practices. Onyx utilized the "theoretical model of social impact" to examine existing organizational practices, with a subsequent focus on the implementation of a practice approach in light of recent impact and assessment studies. The study by Onyx involved an exploration of the nature of social, cultural, or economic capital and their interrelationships, laying the theoretical groundwork for advocating lasting social outcomes. Thus, based on this theory, the role of AI and automation has a catalytic social impact, since it influences immensely all the aforementioned aspects (Weber et al., 2014).


As we navigate the transformative landscape of AI and automation, it is imperative to prioritize the right to work for all individuals. While there are legitimate concerns about job displacement, proactive measures such as retraining programs and the implementation of supportive policies can help mitigate these challenges. Additionally, a commitment to ethical AI practices is crucial to ensuring that advancements in technology do not compromise fundamental human rights, while causing no social distraction. By embracing innovation responsibly, we can build a future where AI and automation complement, rather than replace, the diverse talents and skills of the global workforce.


Ayandibu, A. O., Kaseeram, I., Vezi-Magigaba, M. F., & Oladejo, O. M. (2021). Developing global relevant skills in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. In Advances in Human Resources Management and Organizational Development(pp. 232–245). IGI Global. Retrieved from

Broussard, M. (2019). Artificial unintelligence: How computers misunderstand the world. MIT Press.

Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. (2014). The second machine age: Work, progress, and prosperity in a time of brilliant technologies. W. W. Norton & Company.

Frey, C. B., & Osborne, M. A. (2017). The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerisation? Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 114, 254–280.

Frischmann, B., & Selinger, E. (2018). Re-Engineering humanity. Cambridge University Press.

Hervieux, S., & Wheatley, A. (2022). The rise of AI: Implications and applications of artificial intelligence in academic libraries volume 78. Assoc of College & Research Libraries.

Malatji, O. (2023). The AI evolution: The end of old jobs and the rise of new opportunities. Onesimus Malatji.

Milanez, A. (2023). The impact of AI on the workplace: Evidence from OECD case studies of AI implementation.

Rébé, N. (2021). Artificial intelligence: Robot law, policy and ethics. BRILL.


Weber, C., Kroeger, A., & Lambrich, K. (2014). A theoretical model for understanding the scalability of social impact. In Theory and Empirical Research in Social Entrepreneurship. Edward Elgar Publishing. Retrieved from

About Minas

Minas Stravopodis is a Policy Analyst with special focus on International Relations, Political Sociology, and European Affairs.

He is a PhD candidate in International Relations & Political Sociology at Panteion University of Political & Social Sciences in Athens, while he holds a Master in War Studies from King’s College London, and a Bachelor’s in international & European Studies from University of Piraeus. His PhD research is focused on the creation of a new typology, the “Nation-state Resilience Typology”, by assessing the Balkan region as case study.

He has worked as a Political Advisor on issues related to Greek National Security, European Policies, Human Rights, and the Rule of Law. He has also been a researcher in various Research Centers and Think Tanks. In the past, he has also worked as a Schuman Trainee in the Foreign Affairs Committee at the European Parliament.

Last but not least, Minas Stravopodis is an Author, as he has published his first literary book in October 2021. It is a socio-political novel under the title “The Rebel of the Abyss” and it raises serious concerns of the rise of the far-right wing in Europe and the Western World.

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